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Social policy problems emphasized by the European Union institutions, migration, the method of open coordination and the European Union employment strategy encourage closer cooperation between states. Continent Europe and South Europe pension system models are the most influenced by globalization: the level of benefits decreases, stricter qualification requirements to receive pensions are imposed, labour relations are liberalised, the influence of private pension schemes is increased.

European social and economic development is increasingly related to the globalization of the capital, products and labour market, technological progress and demographic changes. The pension system reform objectives are the following: saving of the financial resources, quality improvement of public services, efficiency and efficacy. New pension system management methods help to create more flexible organisational structure, to establish the system of efficacy measurement, results management and quality management system.

Lane states that the objective of public administration sector reform should endeavour better results and expenses cutting Lane Pollit and G. Bouckaert emphasizes that the reform objectives are saving of state expenses, improvement of public sector quality services, increasing opcionų prekyba 24 valandas government productivity and possibilities with the view of policy efficiency Pollit, Bouckaert, Other authors underline the necessity of public sector reforms too Buhl, Sørensen, ; Thom, Ritz, ; Raipa, Melnikas, E.

Chlivickas, A. Augustinaitis point out the importance of information and knowledge society Melnikas, ; Chlivickas, ; Augustinaitis, Lazutka affirms that the development of pension system relates not only to the technological changes but also to the organisation of the state Lazutka, It reflects the development of the Lithuanian pension system in the transformation period because the Lithuanian pension system has been created in the light of existing social, cultural, political and economic situation.

In this dissertation pension system models were analysed using selected criteria: conception of a model, importance of social partnership, 12 pension system key elements financing and tax system, first tier benefits, second and third tier benefits and their importance, retirement age, etc.

The European social model can not be identified because of the European social security law, unwillingness of the European Union states, different economic development.

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Pension system reforms tendencies were identified: raising of the retirement age; restriction of pension benefits receiving conditions; introduction of active labour market measures; introduction of private funded pensions; creation of pension reserve fund; stimulation of additional voluntary pension insurance; creation of cryptocurrency system using body activity data pdf system reform supervision institutions; stimulation of labour market for elderly people.

Results of pension system reforms in the European Union sates show that pension system reforms display an alternative for privatisation of state social insurance pension system and demonstrate that privatisation of pension systems is not a unique way reforming pension system. Pension system reforms in the European Union states enable to evaluate exclusive elements of the Lithuanian pension system model in a more detailed way and can help to model future the Lithuanian pension system reforms. Neither the state can guarantee the level of the part of funded pension in the first tier and it means the responsibility of persons.

After evaluation of pension system reforms and tendencies in the Lithuanian, the pension system management improvement analysis were accomplished. A pension system modelling using methods of the mathematical statistics and the empirical research of the consequences of the Lithuanian funded pension system reform was carried out.

Main results of the research Analysis of the pension system financing. Results of the empirical data analysis indicate, that income differentiation and poverty level are lesser in North Europe, hybrid and Cryptocurrency system using body activity data pdf pension system models which have progressive tax system.

Social protection expenses related to the tax including social insurance contributions level. These results allow to prove the proposition that social protection expenses are the highest in the EU states having the highest tax including social insurance contributions level. These results allow to prove the proposition that income differentiation is least cryptocurrency system using body activity data pdf EU states having highest tax including social insurance contributions level.

A pension system should ensure economic growth and tst akcijų pasirinkimo sandoriai adequate pensions for the future generations. The reduction of the state social insurance pension system introducing private pension schemes can not solve financing problems and private pension schemes can not be introduced in the state social security system by investment forecasts.

The introduction of private dvejetainis variantas paypal schemes reduces social security pensions guarantees.

Taking into account the results of the research conducted in this dissertation, the progressive tax system could be introduced because such a system better reflects principles of the social justice and social solidarity. Analysis of the employment growth. These results allow to prove the proposition that the higher numbers of part-time workers increase the level of employment.

These results allow to draw a conclusion that more life-long learning leads to a higher employment level. These results allow to prove the proposition that employment level is the highest in the EU states where unemployment level is the least. Evaluation of the state social security pensions guarantees in Lithuania.

According to the results of empirical research sociological surveyit could be stated, that in Lithuania state social insurance pensions guarantees play a major role choosing between state social insurance system and private pensions schemes.

Analysis of pension system models. The pension system models were analysed conferring scores and indices for economic-social indicators, using Pearson correlation and factorial analysis.

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Figure 1. Comparison of social-economic indicators Social indicators Economic indicators France 21 Sw eeden 19 Itay 22 Italy 19 Germany 25 United Kingdom 20 United Kingdom 30 Lithuania 21 Sw eden 31 Netherlands 22 Netherlands 31 Spain 26 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 After the evaluation of pension system models by social-economic indices the conclusion was drawn that the Lithuanian social indices are twice less than Sweden and in general, less than other EU states.

Results of the factorial analysis Social indicators Rotated Component Matrix Economic indicators Component Matrix Models Models 1 2 1 2 3 Germany, Germany,Spain, Spain,- France- France - Italy, Italy - Netherlands- Netherlands, - Sweden, Sweden-,United Kingdom, United Kingdom, - Lithuania- Lithuania- - 15 The analysis of social-economic indicators allowed to evaluate and to identify pension models.

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It was proved that social indicators were the most similar between Continental Europe pension system model states i. France and Germany ; between South Europe pension system model states i. Spain and Italy ; between hybrid pension system model Netherlands and Continental Europe pension system model; between North Europe pension system model Sweden and Anglo-Saxon pension system model the United Kingdom.

It was established that economic indicators were the most similar between Continental Europe pension system model and North Europe pension system model; between hybrid pension system model, South Europe pension system model Spain and Continental Europe pension system model France ; between North Europe pension system model and Anglo-Saxon pension system model. The aim of the European Union social insurance law is to coordinate social security systems between member — states.

Thus, common European social model can not be identified.

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Taking into consideration the comparison, modelling and mathematical statistics methods North Europe, Continental Europe, South Europe, Anglo-Saxon, hybrid and East Europe pension system models were identified.

North Europe and hybrid pension system models analysis proves that economic development and economic competitiveness are compatible with social insurance pensions guarantees. It is proved that social indicators are the most similar between Continental Europe pension system model states i.

It is established that economic indicators are the most similar between Continental Europe pension system model and North Europe pension system model; between hybrid pension system model, South Europe pension system model Spain and Continental Europe pension system model France ; between North Europe pension system model and Anglo-Saxon pension system model. The preconditions of the pension system reforms pasirinkimo strategijos laiko skilimas economic and social factors, improvement of pension system management, provisions of the European Union law, application of the method of open coordination and globalization.

The research showed that in the analysed European Union states funded private pension systems were accomplished without reduction of the covering of state social insurance pensions.

The tendencies of pension system reforms are to increase employment and encourage personal saving by participation in private pension schemes. Considering the results of the analysis, it could be stated, that the European Union states seeks for the pension adequacy in the following ways: by increasing pensionable age; by introducing part-time work; by reforming anticipatory and unemployment pension schemes.

Pay-as-you-go system is designed to ensure the state social insurance guarantees. Funded pension schemes can not reduce social insurance pensions guarantees, adequacy and sustainability. The Lithuanian pension system model which has been created according to the Continental Europe pension system model, has elements of East Europe and South Europe pension system 17 models.

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Cryptocurrency system using body activity data pdf funded pension system reform has introduced the elements of Anglo-Saxon pension system model. The Lithuanian pension system model has been formed in a different way compared to the European Union states.

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However at present it is influenced by similar national and international phenomena. The Lithuanian funded pension system reform of did not reach the objective to ensure pensions adequacy and sustainability.

Due to the fact that the funded pension system was introduced in the conditions of economic growth and surplus of state social insurance fund, the state pension system will have to ensure financial engagements transferring a part of the social contributions to the private pension funds.

After the funded pension system reform, the independence of the state social insurance fund from state budget has decreased.

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The financement of the Lithuanian pension system has become mixed and partly dependent on the state budget and situation in the financial markets. The state social insurance pension system creates higher social security and social solidarity than private funded pension schemes because of the goal of social insurance pensions — to ensure pensions adequacy.

The Lithuanian funded pension system reform of reduced social solidarity and state social insurance pension guarantees. Therefore, the adequacy of pension system could be achieved by raising social insurance pension guarantees.

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According to the results of empirical research sociological surveyit could be stated, that the state social insurance pensions guarantees play a major role in Lithuania choosing between the state social insurance system and private pensions schemes. Persons must be informed about pension rights. Only after professional investigation of received information a person has a possibility to make the right decision choosing between pension systems.

Pension System

To improve the pension system management by introducing risk management, finance management, and quality management systems and to expand electronic services. The establishment of the pension system reserve fund can ensure pension system financial sustainability. The pension system reserve fund can be created by law for the purpose of financing the state social insurance fund deficit for pensions in the future.

The funded pension system reform must ensure continuity of legally protected interests. Consequently, it is recommended to restrict the participation in the funded pension scheme for persons having less than 10 years before pensionable age. The state pension system not based on social insurance must be modified into additional benefits system based on the merits.

The state pension system can not exist as a part of social insurance system. The creation of an independent permanent institution having the function to evaluate pension system reform projects or pension system reform progress could consolidate the management of the pension system. This institution could be based on the social partnership. According to the practice of the pension system in the European Union states and taking into account the results of the research in this dissertation, reforming of the Lithuanian pension system could be executed after evaluation of experience of the North Europe and hybrid pension system models.

According to the practice of the pension system in the European Union states and considering the results of the research in this dissertation, the progressive tax system could be introduced because such a system better reflects principles of the social justice and social solidarity.

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Bitinas A. Saint Etienne: EN3S. Vilnius: Mykolo Romerio universitetas. Klaipėda: Klaipėdos universitetas.